In science, our goal should always be to present with clarity. Since the discovery of perspective drawings, a realistic representation of 3-dimensional objects has become almost mandatory. However, very often these objects have an appeal beyond their scientific truth which gets lost if its is shown in full clarity.

This blog has two series of posts titled “Spheres” and “Annuli” that both showcase images of simple 3-dimensional mathematical objects which deliberately forsake clarity in order to convey that *other* appeal. While accurate perspective renderings are used, the perspective and textures are chosen as to emphasize the abstract aspect.

The example above shows a triply orthogonal system of surfaces. An easy way to create such a system is by taking a doubly orthogonal system of curves in the plane, revolve them about a common axis to obtain two families of surfaces of revolution that intersect orthogonally, and add all planes through the axis of revolution. For instance, we can choose two families of touching circles that pass through a common point, as above.

A single circle, rotated about the black axis, will revolve into a torus. To spice things up, let’s apply an inversion at a sphere centered at the intersection of the circles. This turns the tori into special cyclids like the one above, which all have the appearance of a plane with a handle. Using both a red and a green circle will invert-revolve in two such cyclids that intersect in a straight line and a circle:

These are still attempts of realistic drawings, but we already get the feeling that things aren’t completely evident anymore. For instance, the two cyclids above should be equals: but where did the corresponding red handle go?

Above is the same pair of objects from a different perspective. Now we can see the two handles and the intersection in a line, but where is the intersection circle? Also, where do we need to place the third surface family, which consists of inverted planes, i.e. spheres? The answer to that question is indicated below.

Other perspectives allow amusing variations:

For the top image, I have used several cyclids from each family, and several spheres, clipping them between two planes. To appreciate the image, all this knowledge might be irrelevant. To create it, it is essential.